The open access (OA) movement is the outcome of the electronic publishing facilities and Internet. This movement advocates permanent, free access, without restrictions imposed by certain exploitation rights, to scientific, academic and educational contents with the goal of fostering their accessibility and impact for the benefit of science and society.
The gold route consists of publishing in journals that do not charge any subscription fee for access to the articles, but which have business models that enable them to cover their publishing expenses (for example: an author pays to publish in open access).
With the hybrid model, the journals publish the articles with immediate open access after the author or institution owning the articles has paid a fee to finance access.
According to the definition given by Crown (2002) for the Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) in The Case for Institutional Repositories: A SPARC Position Paper, an institutional repository is “a digital archive of the intellectual product created by the faculty, research staff, and students of an institution and accessible to end users both within and outside of the institution, with few if any barriers to access. In other words, the content of an institutional repository is:
Cumulative and perpetual; and
Open and interoperable."
Cooperative repositories in which the Virtual Library takes part