Portada First certificate
language practice

Introduction ....VII

Grammar 1. Past time ....1
Past simple, past continuous, past perfect, used to, would, participle clauses

Grammar 2. Present perfect ....7
Present perfect simple and continuous, past simple

Grammar 3. Future time ....15
Will, going to, future continuous, future perfect, future time clauses, present continuous, present simple

Grammar 4. Present time ....20
Present simple, present continuous

Grammar 5. CONSOLIDATION 1 ....25
Grammar 6. Indirect speech ....30
With and without tense changes, questions, commands and requests, reporting verbs, paraphrase

Grammar 7. Conditionals ....38
Real/likely situations (first conditional) with if, unless, provided, as long as, the imperative, should
Unreal/imaginary situations (second conditional) with if, were, were to Unreal/imaginary past situations (third conditional) with if, mixed conditions Other if sentences

Grammar 8. Wishes and related forms ....44
Wishes about the present and past, wishes about the future with could and have to, wishes with would, wishes with if only, itís time, Iíd rather, suppose, imagine

Grammar 9. Passives ....50
Transitive and intransitive verbs, focus on important information, reporting verbs, have/get something done, needs doing, verbs and prepositions, other problems

Grammar 10. CONSOLIDATION 2 ....57
Grammar 11. Relative clauses ....62
Subject and object clauses, combining sentences, defining and non-defining clauses, omitting the relative pronoun
which, who, that, whom, whose

Grammar 12. Prepositions ....69
Movement, position and place, problems of use, prepositions without an object, prepositions with more than one word, prepositional phrases

Grammar 13. Linking words 1 ....75
Purpose: so that, infinitive of purpose, in order to, so as to, for
Result: so/such a, so many/much/few/little, too/not enough + to
Contrast: although, though, even though, while, whereas, however, nevertheless, despite, in spite of

Grammar 14. Time expressions ....81
Present time: nowadays, these days
Future time: in, calendar references, at the end, in the end, at last, presently
Past time: once, periods of the day, calendar references, in those days, at that time, after, later, afterwards, other problems

Grammar 15. CONSOLIDATION 3 ....87
Grammar 16. Modal verbs: present and future ....92
Ability: can, be able to
Certainty and uncertainty: must, canít, may, might, could, should, ought to, be bound to
Obligation: must, have to, mustnít, donít have to, should, ought to, had better, is/are to

Grammar 17. Modal verbs: past ....98
Ability: could, was able to
Certainty and uncertainty: must have, canít have, may have, might have, could have, was/were to have
Obligation: had to, should have, ought to have, neednít have, didnít need to
Pronunciation and writing, indirect speech

Grammar 18. Functions 1 ....105
Asking for and giving advice, agreeing and disagreeing, apologising, complaining, ending a conversation, asking for and giving directions, greeting, asking how someone is, asking for information, introducing yourself and others, inviting, accepting and declining invitations, offering something, offering to do something

Grammar 19. Functions 2 ....109
Things to say on special occasions or at special moments, asking for and giving an opinion, pausing to think, asking for permission, giving and refusing permission, expressing preferences, promising, reassuring, recommending, refusing to do something, making and responding to a request, suggesting, thanking

Grammar 20. CONSOLIDATION 4 ....114
Grammar 21. Countable and uncountable nouns ....118
Typical uncountable nouns, uncountable nouns that describe a category, change of meaning, plural nouns, group nouns

Grammar 22. Articles ....125
Indefinite article (a/an), definite article (the), zero article (no article)

Grammar 23. All, no, none, each, every, either, neither ....132

Grammar 24. Making comparisons ....139
Forming comparative adjectives, irregular comparatives, superlatives, comparatives of adverbs, making comparisons, comparative clauses

Grammar 25. CONSOLIDATION 5 ....146
Grammar 26. Phrasal verbs 1 ....150
Understanding phrasal verbs, verbs with two particles, verbs with one particle: transitive and inseparable

Grammar 27. Phrasal verbs 2 ....157
Verbs with one particle: transitive and separable, verbs with one particle: intransitive

Grammar 28. Verbs followed by -ing or infinitive ....164
Verbs followed by -ing or a noun, verbs followed by -ing or a noun or a that-clause, verbs followed by -ing or infinitive: little change of meaning, verbs followed by -ing or infinitive: change of meaning, verbs followed by the infinitive, verbs followed by the infinitive or a that-clause, verbs followed by -ing or infinitive without to

Grammar 29. Verb/Adjective + preposition ....170

Grammar 30. CONSOLIDATION 6 ....176
Grammar 31. Inversion and question tags ....181
Inversion after negative adverbs, inversion to emphasize an adverb, question tags

Grammar 32. Linking words 2 ....186
Reason: because, as, since, because of, on account of, due to, owing to Text organisers: sequencing, adding, giving opinions, giving examples, showing a result, making a contrast, summarizing

Grammar 33. Pronouns ....190
It and there, it and adjectives, one, someone, everyone, anyone, somewhere, what as a pronoun, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, why ever, however, reflexive pronouns, possessives: parts of the body

Grammar 34. Spelling and pronunciation ....196
Spelling problems, spelling and pronunciation

Grammar 35. CONSOLIDATION 7 ....200

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