Portada The Mcdonaldization of society
new century edition

Preface....XIII

1. An Introduction to McDonaldization ....1
McDonald's as a Global Icon ....5
The Long Arm of McDonaldization ....8
The Dimensions of McDonaldization ....11
Efficiency ....12
Calculability ....12
Predictability ....13
Control through Nonhuman Technology ....14
The Advantages of McDonaldization ....15
A Critique of McDonaldization: The Irrationality of Rationality ....16
What Isn't McDonaldized? ....18
A Look Ahead ....19

2. McDonaldization and Its Precursors: From the Iron Cage to the Fast-Food Factory ....21
Bureaucratization: Making Life More Rational ....22
Weber's Theory of Rationality ....22
Irrationality and the "Iron Cage" ....24
The Holocaust: Mass Producing Death ....26
Scientific Management: Finding the One Best Way ....28
The Assembly Line: Turning Workers into Robots ....30
Levittown: Putting Up Houses - "Boom, Boom, Boom" ....32
Shopping Centers: Malling America ....34
McDonald's: Creating the "Fast-Food Factory" ....35
Conclusion ....39

3. Efficiency: Drive-Throughs and Finger Foods ....40
Streamlining the Process ....41
The Fast-Food Industry: Speeding the Way from Secretion to Excretion ....43
Home Cooking (and Related Phenomena): I Don't Have Time to Cook ....44
Shopping: Creating Ever-More Efficient Selling Machines ....47
Higher Education: Just Fill in the Box ....49
Health Care: Docs-in-a-Box ....51
Entertainment: Moving People (and Trash) Efficiently ....52
Other Settings: Streamlining Relationships with Even the Pope ....54
Simplifying the Product ....55
Putting Customers to Work ....57
Conclusion ....61

4. Calculability: Big Macs and Little Chips ....62
Emphasizing Quantity Rather than Quality of Products ....64
The Fast-Food Industry: Of Whalers and Big Fishes ....64
Higher Education: Grades, Scores, Ratings, and Rankings ....66
Health Care: Patients as Dollar Signs ....70
Television: Aesthetics Are Always Secondary ....71
Sports: Nadia Comaneci Scored Exactly 79.275 Points ....72
Politics: There Were No Sound Bites in the Lincoln-Douglas Debate ....75
Other Settings: Junk Food Journalism and Tourist Junk(ets) ....76
Giving the Illusion of Quantity ....77
Reducing Production and Service to Numbers ....78
The Fast-Food Industry: A Precooked Hamburger Measures Exactly 3.875 Inches ....78
Cooking: Bake at 350 Degrees for 40 Minutes ....80
The Workplace: A Penny the Size of a Cartwheel ....80
Conclusion ....82

5. Predictability: It Never Rains on Those Little Houses on the Hillside ....83
Creating Predictable Settings ....84
Motel Chains: Magic Fingers but No Norman Bates ....84
The Fast-Food Industry: Thank God for Those Golden Arches ....85
Other Settings: E.T. Can't Find His Home ....86
Scripting Interaction with Customers ....88
The Fast-Food Industry: "Howdy Pardner" and "Happy Trails" ....88
Other Settings: Even the Jokes Are Scripted ....90
Making Employee Behavior Predictable ....91
The Fast-Food Industry: Even Hamburger University's Professors Behave Predictably ....92
Other Settings: That Disney Look ....93
Creating Predictable Products and Processes ....94
The Fast-Food Industry: Even the Pickles Are Standardized ....94
The University: Cookie-Cutter Textbooks ....96
Entertainment: Welcome to McMovieworld ....96
Sports: There's Even a McStables ....99
Minimizing Danger and Unpleasantness ....100
Conclusion ....102

6. Control: Human and Nonhuman Robots ....104
Controlling Employees ....105
The Fast-Food Industry: From Human to Mechanical Robots ....105
Education: McChild Care Centers ....108
Health Care: Who's Deciding Our Fate? ....108
The Workplace: Do as I Say, Not as I Do ....109
Controlling Customers ....113
The Fast-Food Industry: Get the Hell Out of There ....113
Other Settings: It's Like Boot Camp ....114
Controlling the Process and the Product ....117
Food Production, Cooking, and Vending: It Cooks Itself ....117
Talking: What Can't Be Controlled? ....120
Conclusion ....121

7. The Irrationality of Rationality: Traffic Jams on Those Happy Trails ....123
Inefficiency: Long Lines at the Checkout ....124
High Cost: Better Off at Home 12S
The Illusion of Fun: Ha, Ha, the Stock Market Just Crashed ....126
The Illusion of Reality: Even the Singers Aren't Real ....129
False Friendliness: Hi, George ....130
Disenchantment: Where's the Magic? ....132
Health and Environmental Hazards: Even Your Pets Are at Risk ....133
Homogenization: It's No Different in Paris ....135
Dehumanization: Getting Hosed at Trough and Brew ....136
Fast-Food Industry: Gone Is the Greasy Spoon ....139
Family: The Kitchen as Filling Station ....141
Higher Education: Like Processing Meat ....143
Health Care: You're Just a Number ....143
Conclusion ....145

8. Frontiers of McDonaldization: Birth, Death, and Death-Defying Acts ....146
Birth and Before: High-Tech Pregnancies and Designer Babies ....149
McDonaldizing Conception: Even Granny Can Conceive ....149
McDonaldizing Pregnancy: Choosing the Ideal Baby ....151
McDonaldizing Childbirth: Birth as Pathology ....153
Death - Before, During, and Beyond: Conveyor-Belt Funerals ....157
McDonaldizing the Process of Dying: Designer Deaths ....157
McDonaldizing Funerals: No More "Boo Hoos" ....160
Death-Defying Acts: A Yellow Brick Road to the Summit of Everest? ....163
Conclusion ....165

9. McDonaldization in a Changing World: Are There No Limits? ....167
The Forces Driving McDonaldization: It Pays, We Value It, It Fits ....168
Higher Profits and Lower Costs ....168
McDonaldization for Its Own Sake ....169
McDonaldization and the Changing Society ....170
Globalization and McDonaldization: Get Out or Hang Out ....172
McDonald's as a Local Phenomenon ....172
McDonald's as an Agent of Cultural Imperialism ....174
Globalization versus Americanization ....176
Some Alternative Perspectives: Fast Food in the Era of the Posts ....179
Postindustrialism and McDonaldization: Complexification and Simplification ....179
Fordism and Post-Fordism: Or Is It McDonaldism ? ....181
Postmodernism: Are We Adrift in Hyperspace? ....184
Looking to the Future: De-McDonaldization? ....191
The Future of McDonald's and Franchises: Piles of Rotten Vegetables and Manure ....191
The Future of McDonaldization: Miss Hap's and Miss Steak's ....194
Conclusion ....199

10. Dealing with McDonaldization: A Practical Guide ....200
Creating Reasonable Alternatives: Sometimes You Really Do Have to Break the Rules ....202
Marvelous Market: Crunchy Crusts and Full Taste ....203
Ben 5c Jerry's: Caring Capitalism ....207
B&Bs : Alternatives to McBed, McBreakfasts ....211
Swedish Auto Assembly Lines: Eliminating the Worst Excesses ....212
Fighting Back Collectively: Saving Hearts, Minds,
Taste Buds, and the Piazza di Spagna ....214
McLibel Support Group: McDonald's Pyrrhic Victory ....214
National Heart Savers Association: McClog the Artery ....216
Slow Food: Creating a Place for Traditional, Regional, High-Quality Food ....217
Sprawl-Busters: A Hit List of McDonaldized Superstores ....218
Local Protests: Not Wanting to Say Bye-Bye to the Neighborhood ....219
Coping Individually: Skunk Works, Blindfolded Children, and Fantasy Worlds ....222
Nonrationalized Niches: Life in the Skunk Works ....223
A Range of Individual Actions: If all Else Fails, Save the Children ....226
Freedom: If You Can't Cope, Can You Escape? ....230
Conclusion ....231

Notes ....233

Bibliography ....263

Index ....267

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