The law sets out limits or exceptions to authors' rights that permit the exercise of usage rights, which are initially exclusive to the author, without first having to secure their express authorization. In some of these exceptions, despite not having express permission, the exercise of these rights generates a right to economic compensation in favour of the author or owner. These are regulated in Articles 31 to 40 of the Intellectual Property Act.
In all cases, to be able to exercise the usage rights on the work, mandatory requirements must be met: citing the author and the source of the work. Beyond this, each limit demands its own requirements. The law also establishes that they may never be interpreted in a way that their application causes undue damage to the legitimate interests of the author or are in detriment to the normal use of the work.
The two limits set out by law that may have an effect on the work of the UOC are the following:
This consists of the inclusion in one's own work of excerpts from other works of any kind. They must be works that are already disseminated (ie already in circulation) and the inclusion must be by way of a citation or for their analysis, comment or critical opinion. This use may only be made for teaching or research purposes, in the justified measure for the aim of this inclusion and stating the source and the name of the author of the work.
In the case of photographs, it is possible to use the entire photograph under citation rights, providing the conditions required by law are met.
Teachers in official education may reproduce, distribute and publicly communicate small excerpts of works, excluding text books and university manuals, without authorization when these acts are carried out in the classroom to illustrate their educational activities, providing they are works that are already disseminated and, except in those cases where it is impossible, the author's name and the source are included.